The compounds of alkaline earth metals are more extensively hydrated than those of alkali metals. What are the similar properties of alkaline earth metals? Be, (2) The existence of divalent ions in the solid state is due to the reason that divalent cations due to smaller size and higher charge form stronger lattices then monovalent cations. These metals are highly electropositive and form compounds which are ionic in nature. Other important minerals of calcium are fluorite or fluorspar CaF2, gypsum CaSO4.2 H2O and anhydrite CaSO4. The alkaline earth metals (beryllium (Be), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), and radium (Ra)) are a group of chemical elements in the s-block of the periodic table with very similar properties: 1. shiny 2. silvery-white 3. somewhat reactive metals at standard temperature and pressure 4. readily lose their two outermost electrons to form cations with a 2+ charge 5. low densities 6. low melting points 7. low boiling poi… With regard to the valency of these metals, all … Alkaline earth metals are in the second group of the periodic table. For more information contact us at info@libretexts.org or check out our status page at https://status.libretexts.org. Alkaline earth metal prefer to form divalent ions rather than monovalent ions Alkaline earth metals in their pure forms are generally shiny and silvery. Consequently the electropositive or metallic character increases. These elements form +2 cations because they have two valence electrons and, a cation can be formed by removing those electrons. Strontium is mined as  celestite SrSO4 and Strontianite SrCO3 and barium is mined as barytes , BaSO4. Like alkali metal salts, alkaline earth metal salts also impart a characteristic colour to the flame. The tendency to form ionic compounds increases down the group because ionization enthalpy decreases. We also acknowledge previous National Science Foundation support under grant numbers 1246120, 1525057, and 1413739. Alkali metals have the electronic configuration of [Noble gas] ns 1 while Alkaline earth metals have, [Noble gas] ns 2 electronic configuration. The densities of alkali metals are much lower when compared to other metals. Alkaline earth metals share many similar properties including: They are silvery, shiny, and relatively soft metals. Alkaline earth metals and alloys containing alkaline earth metals regarded as reducing agents. Reason: Due to smaller size of alkaline earth metal ions as compared to alkali metal ions ,the hydration enthalpies of alkaline earth metal ions are larger than those of alkali metal ions. Reason:  The second electron in case of alkali metal is to be removed from a cation which has already acquired the stable noble gas configuration whereas in case of alkaline earth metal, the second electron is to be removed from a cation which is yet to acquire the stable noble gas configuration. They all occur in nature, but are only found in compounds and minerals, not in their elemental forms. Metallic hydrides release hydrides ions. She has started this educational website with the mindset of spreading Free Education to everyone. Legal. They are silvery, white, and hard metals. They are softer but harder than alkali metals. Be2+ > Mg2+ >Ca2+ > Sr2+ > Ba2+. Slurried or finely divided barium have been known to react with explosive force when mixed with such halogenated hydrocarbons as carbon tetrachloride, trichlorotrifluoroethane, fluorotrichloromethane, tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, etc. It also occurs to about 0.13% in sea water as chloride and sulphate. General Characteristics of Compounds of Alkaline Earth Metals Physical Characteristics or Properties of Alkaline Earth Metals. Beryllium is sufficiently hard to scratch glass, but barium is only slightly harder than lead. Alkaline Earth (Group II) Trends Group 2: General Properties The elements in the group include beryllium (Be), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), and radium (Ra). As a result ,their atomic and ionic radii are smaller than those of the corresponding alkali metals. Reason: They form ionic compounds because they have low ionization enthalpies. (1) The divalent cation of alkaline earth metal acquire stable inert gas configuration. All the metals in the periodic tables are classified into three groups, namely; alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, and transition metals. Thus, these elements show strong electropositive or metallic character. The densities of alkaline earth metal do not show any regular trend with increasing atomic number. Here, we will talk about the different compounds of alkali metals and their general characteristics. Beryllium ,however, form covalent compounds because it has smaller size and high ionization enthalpy. Atomic and Ionic Radii The alkaline earth metals are six chemical elements in group 2 of the periodic table.They are beryllium (Be), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), and radium (Ra). But, it soon disappears upon exposure to air. Get More on NIOS Senior Secondary Notes NIOS Notes. They have basic properties. Alkaline earth metals are also highly reactive and hence do not occur in the free state but are widely distributed in nature in the combined state as silicates, carbonates, sulphates and phosphate. Alkaline earth metals are less reactive than alkali metals. Alkaline earth metals and alloys containing alkaline earth metals regarded as reducing agents. Physical properties : Physical nature: These elements have two electrons in their outermost orbital. Therefore, removal of second electron in case of alkaline earth metals requires much less energy than that in case of alkali metals. Reason : Because of their smaller size and hence better packing as compared to alkali metals, they are denser than alkali metal. The alkaline earths possess many of the characteristic properties of metals. Group 2: the alkaline earth metals Physical Properties Metals Halides, oxides, hydroxides, salts of oxoacids Complex ions in aqueous solution Complexes with … Hydrides: Alkali metals react with hydrogen at higher temperatures to form metallic hydrides. Beryllium and magnesium atoms are smaller in size and their electrons are strongly held by the nucleus. Author of this website, Mrs Shilpi Nagpal is MSc (Hons, Chemistry) and BSc (Hons, Chemistry) from Delhi University, B.Ed (I. P. University) and has many years of experience in teaching. Missed the LibreFest? Magnesium is the sixth most abundant element by weight found in the earth’s crust as carbonate ,sulphate and silicate. Alkali metals group [Group 1A] Alkali metals group is located on the maximum left side of the modern periodic table.It is the first group of s-block, Despite the presence of hydrogen at the top of the group (1A), It is not one of the alkali metals but it is one of the nonmetals because it has a small atomic size and it is a gas.. General properties of alkali metals Because of this reason ,these metals are less soft then alkali metals. As a result , a larger amount of lattice enthalpy is released during the formation of compounds containing M2+ ions than in the formation of compounds containing M+ ions. Mg also shows some tendency for covalency. The melting point of the alkali metals is relatively lower than the alkaline earth metal. NIOS Senior Secondary Notes. when they return to their ground state, The absorbed energy is emitted in form of visible light of a particular wavelength. The alkaline earth metals have two electrons more than the nearest noble gas configuration. Reason: Due to low ionisation energies, the alkaline earth metals have a strong tendency to lose both the valence electrons to form dipositive cations. Alkaline earth metals have less electropositive or metallic character as compared to alkali metals. The alkaline earths have two electrons in the outer shell. The group 2 of the periodic table consist of 6 elements .These are Beryllium (Be), magnesium(Mg), Calcium (Ca), strontium(Sr),  barium(Ba), radium (Ra). The name alkaline earth was given since the oxides are alkaline in nature and remain unaffected by heat or fire and exist in Earth’s crust. In their pure state, all of these elements tend to have a shiny, metallic appearance. Alkaline-earth metal - Alkaline-earth metal - Physical and chemical behaviour: The alkaline-earth elements are highly metallic and are good conductors of electricity. The alkaline earth metals have two electrons more than the nearest noble gas configuration. They have two outer valence electrons which they readily lose. They are less electropositive or metallic than the alkali metal. Required fields are marked *, Physical Properties of Alkaline Earth Metals, Beryllium is found in small quantities as silicate minerals, beryl Be, Calcium is the fifth most abundant element by weight found in the earth crust.It mainly  occurs as CaCO, The hydration enthalpies of alkaline earth metal ions decreases as the size of the metal ion increases down the group i.e. Filed Under: Chemistry, Class 11, s-Block Elements Tagged With: Alkaline earth metals form dipositive ions, atomic radii of group 2, density of group 2 elements, electronic configuration of group 2, flame colouration of group 2 elements, group 2 elements are called alkaline earth metals, hydration enthalpy of group 2, ionization enthalpy of group 2, melting and boiling point of group 2, metallic character of group 2 elements, nature of bonds formed. (3) The existence of divalent ions in the aqueous solution is due to greater enthalpy of hydration of the divalent ions which counterbalance the higher value of second ionization enthalpy. The alkaline earth metals (beryllium (Be), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), and radium (Ra)) are a group of chemical elements in the s-block of the periodic table with very similar properties: shiny; silvery-white; somewhat reactive metals at standard temperature and pressure Group 2: Physical Properties of Alkali Earth Metals, [ "article:topic", "electrons", "electronegativity", "ionization energy", "electron", "authorname:clarkj", "Melting points", "barium", "Magnesium", "strontium", "calcium", "Beryllium", "showtoc:no", "Physical Properties", "atomic radius", "First Ionization Energy", "Atomization energy", "atomic properties", "Pauling scale", "electronegativities", "boiling points", "trend", "metallic bonds" ], https://chem.libretexts.org/@app/auth/2/login?returnto=https%3A%2F%2Fchem.libretexts.org%2FBookshelves%2FInorganic_Chemistry%2FModules_and_Websites_(Inorganic_Chemistry)%2FDescriptive_Chemistry%2FElements_Organized_by_Block%2F1_s-Block_Elements%2FGroup__2_Elements%253A_The_Alkaline_Earth_Metals%2F2_Group_2%253A_Physical_Properties_of_Alkali_Earth_Metals, Former Head of Chemistry and Head of Science, The Thermal Stability of the Nitrates and Carbonates, information contact us at info@libretexts.org, status page at https://status.libretexts.org. 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